Exploring Double Taxation Agreements Between India and UAE

What is the double taxation agreement between India and UAE? The India UAE Double Taxation Agreement (DTAA) is a treaty designed to mitigate the risk of income being taxed twice, once in India and once in the United Arab Emirates. This agreement, officially known as the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement, aims to foster economic cooperation, increase cross-border trade and investment and provide clarity on tax regulations for individuals and businesses operating in both countries. The India-UAE tax treaty establishes a framework that prevents the overlapping of tax obligations, thus encouraging a more seamless flow of capital and services between the two nations.

One of the primary benefits of DTAA India UAE is that it helps eliminate the burden of double taxation, thereby enhancing investment and economic collaboration between India and the UAE. Under this agreement, income earned in one country by residents of the other country is either exempt from tax or taxed at a reduced rate in the source country. Additionally, the India-UAE tax regulations set forth in this treaty provide comprehensive guidelines on various tax matters, including income from employment, capital gains and business profits, thereby promoting transparency and legal certainty for all stakeholders involved.

What is Double Taxation?

Double taxation refers to the scenario where the same income is taxed in two different jurisdictions. This can occur in two forms:

  • Juridical double taxation: This happens when a taxpayer is taxed in two countries because of residency in one and income source in another. For instance, if an Indian resident earns income in the UAE, both countries might impose taxes on that income.
  • Economic double taxation: This occurs when the same income is taxed in the hands of different taxpayers. A typical example is corporate profits taxed as company income and then again as dividends to shareholders.

The Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA), such as the India UAE Double Taxation Agreement, plays a pivotal role in mitigating these issues. By clearly defining tax liabilities, it ensures that individuals and businesses are not doubly taxed, thus promoting smoother economic interactions and reducing the risk of tax evasion.

Importance of Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs)

Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) are bilateral treaties between two countries to prevent taxpayers from being taxed twice on the same income. The primary purpose of these agreements, like the India-UAE Double Taxation Agreement, is to promote economic cooperation between countries by reducing tax barriers.

Benefits of DTAA India UAE include:

  • Reduced tax rates and exemptions: Lower withholding taxes on dividends, interest and royalties.
  • Tax credits and reliefs: Ensures that taxes paid in one country are credited against the tax liability in the other.
  • India UAE tax treaty: Enhances bilateral trade and investment by providing a clear tax framework.

These agreements are crucial for businesses and individuals to avoid the financial burden of double taxation and to foster cross-border economic activities.

Overview of India-UAE DTAA

The India UAE Double Taxation Agreement (DTAA) has evolved significantly since its inception to foster economic cooperation and prevent double taxation. Initial discussions for the agreement began in the early 1980s, recognizing the increasing economic interactions between India and the UAE. The first formal DTAA was signed on April 29, 1992, and it came into effect on September 23, 1993, laying the groundwork for tax clarity and reduced tax liabilities for cross-border income​​.

Over the years, the agreement has been updated to reflect modern economic realities and international tax standards. In 2007, a protocol was signed to amend the original agreement, incorporating provisions for clearer definitions and anti-abuse measures. Another significant protocol was added in 2012 to align the treaty with the OECD guidelines and enhance the exchange of information between tax authorities of both countries, aiming to combat tax evasion and promote transparency​​.

These continuous improvements underscore the commitment of both nations to maintaining a robust and effective tax treaty, benefiting individuals and businesses by providing relief from double taxation and creating a favourable environment for trade and investment​.

Objectives of the Agreement

The primary objectives of the DTAA between India and UAE are:

  1. Eliminating double taxation: Ensuring that income is not taxed twice in both countries, which can occur when a resident of one country earns income in the other.
  2. Promoting economic cooperation: Enhancing bilateral trade and investment by providing a stable and predictable tax environment.
  3. Preventing fiscal evasion: Introducing measures to prevent tax evasion through the exchange of information and cooperation between tax authorities.
  4. Encouraging mutual investments: Creating favorable conditions for investors from both countries by reducing tax barriers​

Specific Benefits for Individuals and Corporates

The India-UAE Double Taxation Agreement (DTAA) offers substantial benefits for individuals and corporations by reducing tax rates and providing exemptions, leading to significant tax savings.

Reduced Tax Rates and Exemptions

The India UAE Double Taxation Agreement (DTAA) offers reduced tax rates on dividends, interest and royalties, significantly lowering the tax burden for cross-border businesses. For example, royalties earned by an Indian company in the UAE are taxed at a reduced rate, with the ability to claim this as a credit against Indian taxes, thereby minimizing overall tax liability​.

Tax Credits and Reliefs

The DTAA includes provisions for tax credits, allowing taxes paid in one country to be credited against the tax liability in the other country. This prevents the same income from being taxed twice, offering substantial relief to taxpayers and promoting cross-border economic activities. For instance, if an Indian resident pays taxes in the UAE, they can claim this amount as a credit against their Indian tax obligations​.

Impact on Bilateral Trade and Investment

The DTAA between India and UAE fosters a favorable environment for trade and investment by reducing tax barriers and providing tax certainty. This has led to increased investments from UAE companies in India, particularly in sectors like real estate, infrastructure, and technology, thus enhancing economic cooperation and mutual growth​.

Procedures and Compliance

Claiming benefits under the India-UAE Double Taxation Agreement (DTAA) requires adherence to specific procedures and compliance with documentation and filing requirements.

How to Claim Benefits Under the DTAA

To claim benefits under the India UAE Double Taxation Agreement (DTAA), taxpayers must follow specific procedures:

  1. Tax Residency Certificate (TRC): Individuals and entities must obtain a TRC from the tax authorities of their resident country. This certificate confirms their residency status, which is essential for claiming DTAA benefits.
  2. Form 10F: In India, taxpayers must submit Form 10F along with the TRC to the tax authorities. This form provides additional information required to claim DTAA benefits.
  3. Self-Declaration: Some countries may require a self-declaration form to be submitted along with the TRC and other relevant documents​​.

Documentation and Filing Requirements

Proper documentation and adherence to filing requirements are crucial for availing benefits under the DTAA between India and UAE. Key documents include:

  • Tax Residency Certificate (TRC): As mentioned, the TRC is essential for proving residency status.
  • Income Details: Detailed records of income earned in the other country and taxes paid.
  • Supporting Documents: Any additional documentation that supports the claim for tax relief or credits, such as invoices, contracts and payment receipts​​.

Role of Tax Authorities in Both Countries

Tax authorities in both India and the UAE play a significant role in implementing the DTAA. They ensure compliance with the agreement’s provisions, facilitate the exchange of information to prevent tax evasion and resolve any disputes that may arise. Cooperation between the tax authorities of both countries is essential for the smooth functioning of the DTAA, providing clarity and assistance to taxpayers​.


The India UAE Double Taxation Agreement (DTAA) is a vital instrument that prevents double taxation and provides clarity on tax liabilities, fostering a more predictable and favorable business environment. By offering reduced tax rates on dividends, interest and royalties, and allowing for tax credits on taxes paid in the other country, the DTAA significantly lowers the overall tax burden on individuals and businesses. This agreement not only enhances bilateral trade and investment by promoting economic cooperation but also incorporates modern provisions to combat tax evasion and ensure compliance, thus strengthening the economic ties between India and the UAE.

Maximize Your Benefits Under the India UAE DTAA with Burgeon Law’s Expertise

Navigating the complexities of the India UAE Double Taxation Agreement (DTAA) requires specialized knowledge and expertise. At Burgeon Law, our team of experienced professionals is dedicated to providing comprehensive legal guidance to ensure you maximize the benefits of the DTAA. Whether you’re an individual or a business seeking to understand tax liabilities, claim tax credits or resolve disputes under the DTAA, we are here to help.


1. What is the DTAA between India and UAE?

The India-UAE Double Taxation Agreement (DTAA) is a bilateral treaty aimed at eliminating double taxation on income earned by residents of both countries. It ensures that income is not taxed twice by both India and the UAE, promoting fair and efficient taxation practices and fostering economic cooperation between the two nations​.

2. How does the DTAA benefit residents of both countries?

The DTAA between India and UAE benefits residents by providing tax reliefs, such as reduced tax rates on dividends, interest and royalties. It allows taxpayers to claim tax credits for taxes paid in the other country, ensuring that the same income is not taxed twice. This promotes cross-border investments and reduces the financial burden on individuals and businesses​​.

3. What are the key provisions of the India-UAE DTAA?

The India-UAE Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) includes key provisions such as the allocation of taxing rights between the two countries to prevent double taxation of income, reduced tax rates on certain types of income (e.g., dividends, interest, royalties, and fees for technical services), and the elimination of double taxation through tax credits. It also includes provisions for the exchange of information to combat tax evasion, mutual agreement procedures to resolve disputes and clauses to prevent treaty abuse.

4. How can businesses benefit from the India-UAE DTAA?

Businesses benefit from the India UAE Double Taxation Agreement through:

  • Reduced tax liabilities: Lower withholding tax rates on cross-border income.
  • Tax credits: Ability to claim credits for taxes paid in the other country, reducing overall tax burden.
  • Certainty and predictability: Clear guidelines on tax obligations, reducing the risk of disputes and facilitating smoother operations​.

5. How to resolve tax disputes under the DTAA?

Tax disputes under the DTAA between India and UAE are resolved through mutual agreement procedures (MAP). Taxpayers can approach the tax authorities of their resident country to initiate a MAP, where both country’s authorities work together to resolve the issue. The agreement emphasizes cooperation and information exchange to ensure fair and timely resolution of disputes​.


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