Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Limited Company in India

advantages and disadvantages of private limited company in india

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Private Limited Company in India? A Private Limited Company is a business structure governed under the Companies Act, 2013, where ownership is restricted to a small group of people and not open to public investment. 

This setup is particularly appealing in the Indian market due to its feature of limiting the shareholders’ liability to the extent of their shareholdings, thereby safeguarding personal assets against business liabilities. Private Limited companies must register with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) and comply with specific legal mandates as required by the MCA. 

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Advantages of Private Limited Company in India 

Private Limited Companies enjoy several benefits in India particularly tailored for small to medium-sized enterprises, including limited liability, perpetual succession and relative ease in transferring shares, which collectively enhance their attractiveness to entrepreneurs and investors. A few advantages of a Private Limited Company are listed below:

1. Limited Liability Protection

One of the most significant advantages of a Private Limited Company is that it provides limited liability protection to its shareholders. This means that the personal assets of shareholders are safeguarded in case of any legal or financial liabilities incurred by the company. The members are liable to pay the debts only to the extent of how much they owe towards their shareholding, i.e. the face value of the shares.

2. Separate Legal Entity

A Private Limited Company enjoys the status of a separate legal entity, distinct from its members. This legal identity empowers the company to own assets, enter into contracts and pursue legal actions in its name. There is a separation of management and ownership in this form of business structure. 

3. Continuity of Business

Unlike sole proprietorships, a Private Limited Company has perpetual succession. This means that the company’s existence is not affected by the death or departure of its shareholders, directors or founders. The business continues its operations seamlessly, ensuring stability and continuity even amidst changes in ownership.

4. Better Access to Capital

Private Limited Companies have the advantage of raising capital easily by issuing shares to investors. This access to external funding enables the company to expand its operations, undertake new projects and fuel business growth. Angel investors and venture capitalists often prefer investing in Private Limited Companies due to their structured governance and growth potential.

5. Credibility and Professionalism

Private Limited Companies are recognized as more credible and professional entities, which enhances their ability to attract top talent, clients and investors. This perception stems largely from the legal requirements for their establishment and operation under the Companies Act, 2013. The act mandates Private Limited Companies to register with the MCA, which involves a formal process of documentation that includes filing of the articles of association and the memorandum of association. Once registered, these companies are required to follow stringent compliance norms including regular filing of annual returns and financial statements.

6. Tax Benefits and Incentives

Private Limited Companies are eligible for various tax benefits and incentives provided by the government, enshrined within various provisions of the Indian tax law, primarily under the Income Tax Act, 1961, and are further supplemented by policies tailored to encourage business and investment growth. These benefits include lower tax rates, deductions for business expenses and exemptions for certain types of income. 

The government often introduces sector-specific incentives in the form of tax holidays or reduced tax rates for businesses in special economic zones (SEZs), research and development, startups, and renewable energy. These incentives are designed to attract investments in these high-priority areas and drive technological and infrastructural development.

7. Limited Compliance Requirements

Compared to Public Limited Companies, Private Limited Companies face fewer regulatory requirements, resulting in reduced administrative burden and costs. This streamlined compliance process allows management to focus more on business operations and strategic growth initiatives.

Disadvantages of a Private Limited Company in India

Private Limited Companies come with a set of disadvantages that can affect their operational flexibility and scalability. One significant drawback is the restriction on public shareholding; shares of a Private Limited Company cannot be freely traded on a public stock exchange, which limits a company’s ability to raise capital from the public market. Private Limited Companies are also subject to more stringent regulatory compliances than sole proprietorships or partnerships. 

Furthermore, the process of winding up a Private Limited Company is often lengthy and complicated, entailing legal complexities and potential delays in dissolving the business when necessary. These factors collectively can make the Private Limited Company structure less appealing for entrepreneurs looking for quick scalability and ease of exit.

1. Limited Membership

Private Limited Companies in India are restricted in terms of the number of members they can have which is a maximum of 200 members. This limitation contrasts with Public Limited Companies, which can accommodate an unlimited number of members, potentially limiting the pool of investors and partners available to the company.

2. Restrictions on Share Transfer

The transfer of shares within a Private Limited Company is often restricted by its articles of association (AOA). Shares of a Private Limited Company cannot be freely traded on stock exchanges, restricting liquidity and flexibility for shareholders.

3. Restricted Ownership Transfer

Shares in a Private Limited Company cannot be freely bought or sold, limiting shareholder’s ability to transfer ownership interests. This restriction complicates exit strategies for existing shareholders and makes it challenging for new investors to enter the business.

4. Lack of Transparency

Private Limited Companies are not required to disclose as much financial information as Public Limited Companies, reducing transparency and making it harder for investors to assess the company’s performance and potential. 

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, navigating the landscape of a Private Limited Company’s advantages and disadvantages in India involves a sophisticated balance of benefits and drawbacks. The structure offers substantial protection through limited liability and compliance that enhances operational reliability, fostering trust among investors and financial institutions.

However, these advantages come with their own set of challenges. The restriction on the number of shareholders (maximum of 200) and the public trading of shares complicates capital-raising efforts that could otherwise reduce the expansion. While the advantages and disadvantages of a Private Limited Company structure are ideally suited for those seeking investment security and long-term stability, it demands careful legal and strategic planning to mitigate its inherent limitations.

Setting Up in India

Expert legal support is important for entrepreneurs navigating the complexities of choosing the right business structure, especially when establishing a Private Limited Company, it is crucial to understand a Private Limited Company’s advantages and disadvantages. From understanding the legal requirements to ensuring compliance with regulatory frameworks, knowledgeable legal advisors provide invaluable guidance every step of the way. 

For personalized advice and support in setting up your business in India, explore Burgeon Law’s “Setting up in India” service. With extensive experience and a proven track record of assisting businesses at various growth stages, Burgeon Law offers tailored solutions to meet your specific needs and objectives. Discover how Burgeon Law can assist in setting up your business in India today and take the first step towards achieving your entrepreneurial aspirations. 


1. What are the primary advantages of a Private Limited Company in India?

The primary Advantages of a Private Limited Company in India include:

  • Limited Liability Protection
  • Separate Legal Entity
  • Continuity of Business
  • Better Access to Capital
  • Credibility
  • Limited Compliance Requirements
  • Control Over Ownership

2. What challenges come with establishing a Private Limited Company in India?

With various Private Limited Company advantages and disadvantages, there are a few Challenges in Establishing a Private Limited Company in India:

  • Regulatory Compliance Burden
  • Limited Access to Capital
  • Administrative and Documentation Requirements
  • Difficulty in Obtaining Licenses and Permits
  • Stringent Corporate Governance Standards

3. How does limited liability benefit shareholders of a Private Limited Company?

Limited liability benefits shareholders of a Private Limited Company by protecting their assets from the company’s debts and obligations. This means that shareholder’s financial liability is limited to the amount they have invested in the company through purchasing shares. Limited liability thus provides shareholders with a sense of security and encourages investment in the company without the fear of risking their wealth beyond their investment.

4. What are the compliance requirements for a Private Limited Company in India? 

With numerous Private Limited Company advantages and disadvantages, there is a need to Comply with the requirements for a Private Limited Company in India:

  • Annual Compliances include yearly filings and disclosures including submitting annual returns and financial statements of the company.
  • INC-20A: Declaration for Commencement of Business
  • Appointment of Auditor and Filing E-form ADT-1
  • Board Meetings
  • Annual General Meeting (AGM)
  • Annual ROC Filings
    • AOC-4: Filing of Financial Statements
    • MGT-7: Annual Returns
    • DIR-12:Appointment/Resignation of Directors
    • DIR-3 KYC: Director KYC Submission
    • DPT-3: Return of Deposits
  • Directors’ Report
  • Maintenance of Statutory Registers and Books of Accounts

5. Can a Private Limited Company in India go public?

Yes, a Private Limited Company in India can be converted into a Public Limited Company by submitting Form MGT-14 to register the resolution passed by the company altering its Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Article of Association (AOA), along with filing Form INC-27.

6. Are there limitations on shareholder numbers in a Private Limited Company?

Yes, there are limitations on shareholder numbers in a Private Limited Company in India. According to the Companies Act, 2013, a Private Limited Company is restricted in terms of the maximum number of shareholders it can have. Specifically, a Private Limited Company cannot have more than 200 shareholders at any given time. The restriction on shareholder numbers in Private Limited Companies aims to maintain the private nature of the company and facilitate effective management and decision-making among a limited group of shareholders.

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